[19] In addition to the number, Fox contributed information on the average Union soldier. The U.S. Total number of deaths from the Civil War, Approximate percentage of the American population that died during the Civil War, Number of Americans lost if 2.5% of the American population died in a war today, Number of American soldiers who died in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq (as of 3/13/13), Number of Northerners mobilized to fight for the Union army, Number of Southerners mobilized to fight for the Confederacy, Estimated percentage of Civil War dead who were never identified, Estimated percentage of dead African American Union soldiers who were never identified, Number of Civil War deaths that occurred from disease rather than battle, Number of inquiries answered by the Missing Soldiers Office from 1865-1868, Number of enslaved persons in the United States in 1860, Number of African American soldiers that served in the Civil War, Average death rate for all Civil War soldiers, Ratio of Confederate deaths to Union deaths, Ratio of African American Civil War troops who died of disease to those that died on the battlefield, largely due to discriminatory medical care, Number of Civil War Union corpses found in the South through a federal reinterment program from 1866-1869, Number of Union soldiers who were reinterred in 74 congressionally mandated national cemeteries by 1871, Number of Confederate soldiers buried in those national cemeteries. So it was civil war, but for many foreign-born soldiers and citizens, this was much more than America’s war. The Death of Reconstruction: Race, Labor, and Politics in the Post-Civil War North, 1865-1901 [Richardson, Heather Cox] on Amazon.com. His leg was amputated just over 4 inches (100 mm) from his hip. Hacker’s new estimate of Civil War deaths spans a wide margin: 650,000 to 850,000, with 750,000 as the central figure. [11] Diarrhea and dysentery became the leading causes of death with casualty figures showing that roughly twice as many soldiers died from disease as from the most frequent type of battle injury - the gunshot wound (shown in Latin terminology on military medical records as Vulnus Sclopet).[10][13][14][15]. The Adjutant General started a bureau for the “collection, safekeeping, and publication of Rebel Archives” in July of 1865. Another stark disparity is the rate of U.S. fatalities in today's conflicts as compared to those in even the recent past. What caused the Civil War? Harrowing images from … [6] In 1861, when the Union Army entered the First Battle of Bull Run, they thought a quick victory would bring an end to the war. Other ailments which affected Civil War soldiers included: Soldiers who were captured by the enemy and held as prisoners of war (POWs) were, in a significant number of instances, housed in such miserable conditions that they faced a higher likelihood of contracting and succumbing to one of the medical conditions shown above; starvation also became a problem in POW camps as more soldiers were captured in battle and food shortages widened. African-Americans and Hispanics still at risk. [21] They often shattered bones beyond repair. The young nation experienced bloodshed of a magnitude that has not been equaled since by any other American conflict. Bullet wounds made by the slow moving Minié ball caused major damage. Nearly 500,000 military personnel died during the U.S. Civil War. [4] Newer estimates have put the number at about 750,000 or about 20% higher than previously approximated. [6] It represented both Christian and nationalist reasons for going to war. [2] It also shocked international observers. The following is taken from New York in the War of the Rebellion, 3rd ed. Because doctors were often unaware of what caused the diseases they were encountering, and because medical hygiene practices were poor compared with those practiced today, physicians often could do very little to treat their patients; in many cases, they even hastened soldiers' deaths by failing to wash their hands and instruments before moving from one patient to the next - simple protocols which did not begin to take hold until later in the war through the pioneering military medical management efforts of William A. Hammond and Jonathan Letterman. "Historian revises estimate of Civil War dead", 47th Pennsylvania Volunteers: One Civil War Regiment's Story, Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion, "New Estimate Raises Civil War Death Toll", Death and Mourning in the American Civil War, The Civil War in Four Minutes: Soldier Life Video, https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=American_Civil_War_casualties&oldid=7150544, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License, brain, cardiac, kidney, and respiratory conditions (asthma, Bright's Disease, bronchitis, cardiac/heart disease, heatstroke/sunstroke, nephritis, pleuresy), dermatologic conditions (army itch, dermatitis, erysipelas, insect stings and bites), digestive complaints and other illnesses arising from poor food or water quality (constipation, scurvy), infectious diseases (abscesses, cholera, conjunctivitis, consumption/tuberculosis, diphtheria, malarial/intermittent fevers, measles, pneumonia, scarlet fever, smallpox/variola, syphilis and other venereal diseases, tetanus, typhoid fever, typhus fever, unidentified viral infections, yellow fever), musculoskeletal injuries (broken bones, dislocations, rheumatism, sprains). [19] He went over every muster list, battlefield record and pension record he could find. [2] Of those who died, by far the leading cause of death was disease. To avoid losing a limb and the painful operation, some soldiers and officers went so far as to try to treat their wounds themselves. While many still debate the ultimate causes of the Civil War, Pulitzer … [5] Confederate military records are much fewer than Union records. Then the bone was sawed through. Civil war soldiers on both sides had a very simple diet. [6] American society in general, and soldiers in particular, believed in the ars moriendi (the art of dying) or the "good death." [21] The closer a wound was to the body the higher the mortality rate. This page was last changed on 18 October 2020, at 07:25. Nerves were pulled out as far as possible then cut off. Most people think of a Civil War death as a battlefield death, and certainly this was true in many cases. Mar 15, 2019; Paul Gottfried on the Intellectual Forces Driving the Perpetual Wars. The violence in battles such as Shiloh, Antietam, Stones River and Gettysburg shocked everyone in the country, both North and South. Gain insight into the death and destruction of World War I with firsthand accounts from former soldiers. information such as race and ethnicity, gender, branch of service, and cause of death. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. (See article below) Union Civil War Casualties. History. The amputation process itself was done quickly. According to “The Impact of Disease on the Civil War” by Intisar K Hamidullah, 3/5 Union troops died of diseases. [24] A cut was made around the arm or leg. But this is a present-minded understanding of the circumstances, because it ignores the epic antebellum confrontation with disease. View data on the casualties of World War I and consider the impact the losses had on each country. Fox came up with the round number of 94,000 dead. [11], As many as half of the men killed in battle were not identified when they were buried. [6] But dying of disease was considered a horrible way to die and most feared it more than dying in battle. Casualties in the Civil War. American Civil War casualties are those soldiers, both Union and Confederate, who died, were wounded, went missing or were captured. Battle Deaths (VA estimate) 1,000 . [18] Probably the main reason was that the census itself that year was suspected of being wrong. [18] Walker's estimate was based on calculating a typical growth in population which had been consistent during the nineteenth century, minus the number of males who were missing from the census. [21] Fortunately, Hood was among the 17% who survived. Washington, D.C.: U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, 1861-1865. The Union armies had from 2,500,000 to 2,750,000 men. [18] Livermore's number was based on incomplete battle reports. The American Civil War was the nation's bloodiest war. [19] The population of the United States in 1860 was just under 31.5 million. [24] In most cases anesthesia was used. These attitudes left soldiers to believe that a good death was glorious and at the same time a last act of redemption. Registers of Deaths of Volunteers, in Records of the U.S. Adjutant General's Office (Record Group 94). That’s almost half of all Americans who have ever died during wartime, and more than … [20] Of the remaining 25% who were foreign born, many did not appear in any census records prior to the Civil War. The following tables were generated from the Vietnam Conflict Extract Data File of the Defense Casualty Analysis System (DCAS) Extract Files, which is current as of April 29, 2008.The Vietnam Conflict Extract Data File of the Defense Casualty Analysis System (DCAS) Extract Files contains records of 58,220 U.S. military fatal casualties of the Vietnam War. [19] In 1889 he wrote Regimental Losses in the American Civil War, 1861-1865. [7] Yet the same military tactics were being used as the earlier war; close formations of men firing in volleys. [6] Then, as it became apparent that it would become a military confrontation, both sides believed it would not last very long. As a result, at times, a physician's treatment of wounds, infections and diseases did more harm than good. The Union army was able to replace their casualties with new conscripts, ... by race and gender. [5] The records kept by each company were designed to keep track of how many men were in each unit, not to keep track of each soldier. When an initial military coup failed to win control of the entire country, a bloody civil war ensued, fought with great ferocity on both sides. In both World War I and World War II, that rate was about one in 40. Albany: J. [17] Some of the records were kept by the Union Army and sent to the War Department in Washington, D.C.. Courtesy: Library of Congress From 1861 to 1865, the Civil War ravaged America. It also made a crude guess as to how many died from disease and other causes. When Richmond fell in 1865, records were destroyed, shipped south or left behind. [2] The violence in battles such as Shiloh, Antietam, Stones River and Gettysburg shocked everyone in the country, both North and South. Hispanic soldiers fought on both sides. Nov 20, 2018 [23] For those who could not use an artificial leg, the veteran amputee was given $70. US Civil War deaths therefore could range from 617,877 to 851,066, and he settles on an estimate of 750,000 dead. Mexican War (1846-1848) Total U.S. Servicemembers 78,718 Battle Deaths 1,733 Other Deaths (In Theater) 11,550 Non-mortal Woundings 4,152 . [21] For example, Confederate General John Bell Hood was wounded in the leg at the Battle of Chickamauga. [2] A single soldier could be listed as a casualty several times during the war. Number of Civil War deaths that occurred from disease rather than battle: 68,162: Number of inquiries answered by the Missing Soldiers Office from 1865-1868: 4,000,000: Number of enslaved persons in the United States in 1860: 180,000: Number of African American soldiers that served in the Civil War: 1 in 5: Average death rate for all Civil War soldiers: 3:1: Ratio of Confederate deaths to Union deaths: 9:1 Senator from South Carolina made the statement he would drink all the blood shed over the South declaring their independence from the Union. [8] Also, by dying well a person showed others how to die well. Mustered in: September 13, 1862 Mustered out: June 3, 1865. [2] This could be for any reason including being sick, wounded, captured, missing or killed. And consider that the American population in 1860 was about 31 million people, about one-tenth the size it is today. [23] Most only had experience in lancing boils or pulling teeth. [6] After the Union loss at Bull Run, the Confederates thought the Union would simply give up the idea re-uniting the North and South. [23], From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, Burial of the dead on the Antietam battlefield. Q. [10] Inadequate sanitation facilities, and the lack of shelter, clothing, shoes and food,[a] as well as contaminated water contributed to high death rates in the camps. This type of hip operation had an 83% mortality rate. Similarly, the ABMC Records do not cover inter-War deaths such as the Port Chicago disaster in which 320 died. [3] The exact number of dead will never be known with any certainty. [17] In 1903, the Secretary of War made an appeal to Southern Governors to lend the War Department any Confederate Army records in their possession so they could be copied. Bandages were used over and over again on different men without washing or disinfecting them first. Southerners did not believe the North would mobilize an army against them. The tables are compiled from various Department of Defense (DOD) sources. [9][10][11], In addition, camp hygiene was extremely poor. [21] But Stonewall Jackson did not long survive the loss of his arm. [5], In 1860, no one expected any armed conflict would come from the Southern states secession from the Union. It also shocked international observers. If you go with that total for a minute620,000the number of men dying in the Civil War is more than in all other American wars from the American Revolution through the Korean War combined. [21] During the war it is estimated that about 60,000 surgeries were performed. Likewise, 2/3 Confederate troops died of infection. Soldiers called medics "butchers" and they feared amputations more than anything else. [22] Men often lay unattended for a day or more before being brought to a surgeon. [23] North Carolina took care of 1,550 veterans who applied for help. The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a civil war in the United States from 1861 to 1865, fought between northern states loyal to the Union and southern states that had seceded to form the Confederate States of America. [7] During the Civil War, both armies were equipped with rifles that could shoot farther, could reload faster and were much more accurate than the muskets used in the Mexican–American War. Arm wounds had a lower mortality rate of 24%. And during the Civil War, it was an astounding one in five. Approximately 2,000,000 men served in the Union forces while about 750,000 served in the Confederacy. [2], The mid-nineteenth century attitudes towards death and dying for a noble cause were considerably different than modern thinking. The second mass wave of protest and racial violence came during the disruptive years of the Depression and World War II. In all, including non-combat deaths like disease, the chances of dying as a soldier or sailor in the Civil War was 18.9% -- still the largest death rate in U.S. military history. The traditional estimate has become iconic, historian J. David Hacker said. NY topped 20,000 COVID-19 deaths. As of June 2018 total of US World War II casualties listed as MIA is 72,823 [92] e. ^ Korean War : Note: [20] gives Dead as 33,746 and Wounded as 103, 284 and MIA as 8,177. Chinese Civil War, (1945–49), military struggle for control of China waged between the Nationalists (Kuomintang) under Chiang Kai-shek and the Communists under Mao Zedong.. [19] A demographic historian from New York's Binghamton University, J. David Hacker, has made a new calculation of Civil War deaths which is about 20% higher. [23] They needed a prosthesis to replace a missing arm or leg. [7] The new rifles combined with obsolete tactics were responsible for up to 90% of all deaths in battle. [21] Another reason was to prevent gangrene and other complications. [17], Since about 1900, historians have quoted the numbers produced by Thomas L. Livermore of 618,222 Confederate and Union deaths during the war. At any rate, these casualties exceed the nation's loss in all its other wars, from the Revolution through Vietnam. [8], Another factor which contributed to the high death tolls was the status of medical care at the beginning of the Civil War. Wars covered include the Revolutionary War, the War of 1812, the Mexican War, the Civil War, the Spanish-American War, World War I, World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam Conflict, Men saw going to war as a chance for glory and honor. Index of soldiers who served in the Civil War, 1861-1865 culled from 6.3 million soldier records in the General Index Cards to the Compiled Military Service Records in the National Archives. [6] Or, if it did, it would be brief and mostly for show purposes. [6] They thought that giving one's life for their country or cause was the highest calling. An equivalent proportion of today's population would be six million. [23] By modern standards the operations were crude, even brutal. Learn about role the Soviet Union played in the Nazis’ plans for “space and race.”. Civil War Monroe County Regiment; Rochester Race Horses. [22], Where the wound was located on a limb affected the soldier's ability to survive after the Surgery. But now a history professor at … For example, that he averaged 5 feet 8 ¼ inches tall and weighed 143 ½ pounds. [19], Interestingly, before Fox or Livermore, the superintendent of the1870 United States Census, Francis A. Walker, had estimated the number of male deaths to be “not less than 850,000.”[18] But this was not as widely accepted as the lower numbers. As most were Christians, they were far better prepared to die than to kill. In Vietnam, Waldman writes, there was one death for every 58 soldiers deployed. [21], Men who survived an amputation needed to return to their work after the war. The end of World War II and the collapse of the United Front. [23] Doctors knew very little about germs and bacteria. If we work from an assumption that deaths from disease were not viewed at the time as war casualties, but rather as a continuation of prewar circumstances, instead of 750,000 casualties faced by Civil War-era Americans, we are left with 250,000. [21] Perhaps the most important reason was that medics had too many wounded men and very little time to reconstruct damaged body parts. [19], Amputation was by far the most common surgery in the Civil War. Dec 13, 2018; The Impact of War on the Environment. [6] War was presented to soldiers as a way to die "for God and country". [20] About 75% of soldiers were born in America. Kristina Arriaga on the Impact of War on Women. [7], Death was only one of several ways a soldier could be listed as a casualty. [6], During the 1850s there were a number of improvements in weapons, especially rifles. [6] Both were wrong. All Civil War casualty numbers are estimates, no matter what the source. [22] Of these, nearly 75% were amputations. [2] During the Civil War a casualty was any soldier who could not perform his duties. The three days of conflict at Gettysburg resulted in 51,000 casualties, making it the bloodiest battle of the Civil War. Ethnicity, Race, and the Military. Frederick Phisterer. Combat Deaths: Over 110,000 Other Deaths*: Over 250,000. [23] Lastly, if a man was wounded in the head, stomach or chest, he rarely lived long enough to be taken to a field hospital. Knowledge, diagnostic procedures, equipment, and some experts say is wrong amid reopening push Kristina Arriaga the. ( record Group 94 ) quoted is 620,000 that is most often quoted is 620,000 independence the... Possible then cut off records Administration in 2008 it is today is 750,000 Deaths is. 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